Foliar symptomology and tissue concentrations of five nutritionally deficient floriculture crops.

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Title: Foliar symptomology and tissue concentrations of five nutritionally deficient floriculture crops.
Author: Williams, Amy Lynn
Advisors: Dr. Paul V. Nelson, Committee Chair
Abstract: Tissue analysis standards and complete visual deficiency symptoms of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B are crucial for monitoring plant nutrient status. Foliar analysis standards and visual symptoms of nutritional disorders for calibrachoa, angelonia, bracteantha, brachyscome 'Mini Yellow', and brachyscome 'Jumbo Mauve' have not been published and were the objectives of this study. These plants were grown hydroponically in a glass greenhouse at 35oN latitude. Nutrient treatments were based on the macronutrient composition of Hoagland's all-nitrate nutrient solution with altered micronutrient levels and 11 additional related solutions, each devoid of one essential nutrient. Visual symptoms were chronologically recorded and photographed. Synoptic visual deficiency symptoms were as follows: N — Plants were stunted with smaller leaves. As symptoms progressed the plants developed a light green chlorosis and the lowest leaves developed a yellow chlorosis followed by a brown necrosis. P — Plants were smaller and all the foliage developed a dark green pigmentation, which progressed into a necrosis of the lower mature leaves. K — Plants develop chlorosis of the leaf tips and margins, which quickly progress into necrosis. Ca — Severe stunting and compactness would result, accompanied by chlorosis and necrosis of the shoot tips. Flowering would cease or be incomplete. Mg — Recently mature and mature leaves would develop a uniform or interveinal chlorosis, which would progress from a light green to yellow, and then turn brown. S — Plants would be severely stunted and then develop a uniform lime-green chlorosis. Fe — A light green chlorosis would progress from the shoot tips to the mature leaves, which would progress into a light yellow followed by a white chlorosis and brown necrosis. Mn — A light green chlorosis of the entire plant, which would often be smaller in size. Necrosis would affect the recently mature leaves. Zn — Young leaves would develop a light green chlorosis and be slightly puckered. Cu — Plants were small and developed a blue-green pigmentation. Severe twisting and rolling of the young leaves was observed. B — Extreme rosetting and deformation of the shoot tips and young leaves resulted in short compact plants. Foliage was deep green and glossy with a thick, leathery texture. The rate at which symptoms occurred is an indication of the species sensitivity to a particular nutrient deficiency. The chronological order in which nutrient deficiency symptoms occurred was as follows: that were first to occur by species were as follows: Calibrachoa — Fe, Ca, Mn, N, S, B, K, P, Cu, Zn and Mg. Angelonia — Ca, Fe, K, N, P, S, Cu, Mn, B, Zn and Mg. Bracteantha — Fe, Ca, B, K, N, P, Mg, S, Mn, Zn and Cu. Brachyscome 'Mini Yellow' — Fe, Ca, N, P, B, Mn, S, Mg, Cu, Zn and K. Brachyscome 'Jumbo Mauve' — Fe, N, B, Ca, P, K, S, Mg and Cu. Brachyscome 'Jumbo Mauve' plants were extremely resistant to Mn and Zn, because these symptoms did not appear during this trial and are not reported in the text.
Date: 2004-03-29
Degree: MS
Discipline: Horticultural Science

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