Ammonia Emission from Stored Broiler Cake

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Title: Ammonia Emission from Stored Broiler Cake
Author: Yao, Haiyan
Advisors: Dan H. Willits, Committee Member
Philip W. Westerman, Committee Member
Jason A. Osborne, Committee Member
Sanjay B. Shah, Committee Chair
Wayne P. Robarge, Committee Member
Lingjuan Wang, Committee Member
Abstract: Ammonia emission from animal feeding operations has potential negative impacts on the environment and public health and it also reduces the nutrient value of animal waste. When conditions are not suitable for land application, broiler cake (or litter) may be stored in stockpiles which may contribute to ammonia emission. In this study, summer and winter ammonia emission factors from broiler cake stockpiles stored in a naturally ventilated shed were developed. The lab experiment measured relative ammonia emissions as affected by type of cover and depth of cake. Scrubbers were used to measure ammonia concentration both in the field and lab studies. In the field, the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) method and Fick’s law of diffusion were used to determine ammonia emissions due to forced and natural convections, respectively. The ammonia emission due to natural convection was <0.01% of total emission. However, it may be necessary to calculate emissions based on concentrations measured only during conditions of forced convection. In summer, the estimated total ammonia-N loss was 0.8 % of total N. In winter, the total ammonia loss was 1.4 % of total N during the first 7 d and 2.5 % for the whole 15-d period. The estimated average daily ammonia emission factor in summer (7 d) was 24.5 g NH3-N/m3-d of cake or 7.0 g NH3-N/AU (500 kg LW)-d. The estimated daily ammonia emission factor for the first 7 d in winter was 35.6 g NH3-N/m3–d or 42.5 g NH3-N/AU-d. The total ammonia lost during the 15-d winter study was 33.8 g NH3-N/m3-d or 40.2 g NH3-N/ AU-d. Ammonia losses from the tarp covered cake were significantly lower than the control and double depth treatments by 45% and 49%, respectively, at the end of study. Ammonia losses (g/m3) are lower from stockpiles with lower surface area per unit volume.
Date: 2009-08-10
Degree: MS
Discipline: Biological and Agricultural Engineering
URI: http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/1582


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