Impact of Manure and Soil Test Phosphorus on Phosphorus Runoff from Soils Subjected to Simulated Rainfall

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dc.contributor.advisor dan israel, Committee Chair en_US Roberts, John Christopher en_US 2010-04-02T18:10:42Z 2010-04-02T18:10:42Z 2005-10-16 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-06162005-123000 en_US
dc.description.abstract Runoff from agricultural fields amended with animal manure or fertilizer is a source of phosphorus (P) pollution to surface waters, which can have harmful effects such as eutrophication. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of soil P status and the P composition of manure sources on P in runoff, characterize the effects of manure sources on mass loss of dissolved reactive P (DRP), total dissolved P (TDP), algal available P (AAP) and total P (TP) in runoff, and enhance the PLAT database with respect to soluble P attenuating factor (SPAF) and non-soluble P attenuating factor (NSPAF) values. Soil boxes set at 5% slopes received 7.5 cm hr-1 of simulated rainfall. Study soils included a Kenansville loamy sand (loamy siliceous subactive thermic Arenic Hapludults, a Coastal Plain soil) and a Davidson silt loam (kaolinitic thermic Rhodic Kandiudults, a Piedmont soil). Soil test P concentrations ranged from 16 to 283 mg P kg-1. Sources of P included broiler litter (BRL), breeder manure (BRD), breeder manure treated with three rates of alum (Al2(SO4)3) BRD0-0 kg m-2, BRDL-3.9 kg m-2, and BRDH-7.8 kg m-2 and DAP along with an unamended control. All manure sources were applied at 66 kg P ha-1. Water extractable P (WEP) represented an average of 10 ?b 6% total P in manure. Runoff samples were taken over a 30-min period. Piedmont soil contained greater amounts of clay, Al and Fe concentrations, and higher P sorption capacities that produced significantly lower DRP, TDP, AAP, and TP losses than the Coastal Plain soil. Runoff P loss did not differ for low and high STP soils of same taxonomy with the exception of AAP mass losses for Coastal Plain soil samples. Water extractable P in manures accounted for all DRP lost in runoff with DRP correlating strongly with WEP concentration (0.9961). A weak relationship between DRP in runoff and WEP applied to soil boxes was observed (R2=0.6547) and increased when a possible outlying manure treatment, BRL, was omitted from regression data (0.9927). Overall, manures containing the highest WEP concentrations supplied the largest losses of DRP in runoff. Manure treated with 3.9 and 7.8 kg m-2 of Al2(SO4)3 (alum) decreased DRP in runoff by 29%. Values calculated for PLAT SPAF and NSPAF coefficients were higher for Coastal Plain soil than Piedmont soil and overall higher than default values in PLAT. Management based on these results should help minimize harmful effects of P in runoff. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject manure en_US
dc.subject STP en_US
dc.subject AAP TDP en_US
dc.subject DRP en_US
dc.subject TP en_US
dc.subject alum en_US
dc.subject runoff en_US
dc.title Impact of Manure and Soil Test Phosphorus on Phosphorus Runoff from Soils Subjected to Simulated Rainfall en_US MS en_US thesis en_US Soil Science en_US

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