Peanut (Arachis hypogea) Response to Cultural Practices Related to Planting Pattern, Irrigation, and Fertility

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Title: Peanut (Arachis hypogea) Response to Cultural Practices Related to Planting Pattern, Irrigation, and Fertility
Author: Lanier, James Edward
Advisors: David L. Jordan, Committee Chair
Abstract: Experiments were conducted during 2001 and 2002 at the Peanut Belt Research Station near Lewiston-Woodville in North Carolina to compare development of early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola Hori), pod yield, and market grade characteristics when peanut was grown under overhead sprinkler irrigation (OSI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) with and without fungicides. Incidence of early leaf spot was lower when peanut was grown under SDI compared with OSI when fungicides were not applied, and fewer fungicide applications were needed when applications were based on weather advisories rather than when applied bi-weekly. There was no difference in early leaf spot control or leaf defoliation resulting from disease when fungicides were applied regardless of irrigation system or fungicide application approach nor was there a difference in yield when fungicides were applied, regardless of irrigation system. The percentage of extra large kernels (%ELK) was lower in one of two years under SDI compared with OSI. The percentage of total sound mature kernels (%TSMK) was higher when fungicides were applied compared with non-treated peanut. There were no differences in percentages of fancy pods (%FP), sound splits (%SS), and other kernels (%OK) among irrigation systems and fungicide programs. In a separate experiment where fungicides were applied bi-weekly, pod yield, %FP, %ELK, and %OK were similar under SDI and OSI but greater than non-irrigated peanut. Experiments were conducted from 1999 through 2002 in North Carolina to compare interactions of planting pattern, plant population, and irrigation on peanut pod yield and market grade characteristics. Peanut pod yield was higher in standard twin row planting patterns (rows spaced 18 cm apart on 91-cm centers) than when grown in single row planting patterns (rows spaced 91 cm apart) in some but not all experiments. Planting peanut in the narrow twin row pattern (rows spaced 18 cm apart on 46-cm centers) did not increase peanut pod yield over the standard twin row planting pattern. Less tomato spotted wilt virus was observed in standard or narrow twin row planting patterns compared with single row planting patterns. Sicklepod [Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin and Barneby] control was higher when peanut was seeded in standard twin row planting pattern compared with peanut planted in the single-row planting pattern irrespective of preemergence or postemergence herbicide treatment. Irrigation and planting peanut in single rows spaced 46 cm apart did not improve yield over non-irrigated peanut or single rows spaced 91 cm apart, respectively. The interaction of cultivar by planting pattern was not significant for pod yield, market grade characteristics, or severity of tomato spotted wilt virus, suggesting that response to these variables will be independent. Experiments were conducted from 2000 through 2002 in North Carolina to compare peanut response to inoculation with Brady rhizobia and ammonium sulfate. Peanut pod yield was higher following application of inoculant in 7 of 17 experiments. Ammonium sulfate increased pod yield in 3 of 6 experiments, although the rate of ammonium sulfate needed to optimize yield varied by experiment. Inoculating both rows of peanut seeded in twin row patterns yield higher in 2 of 4 experiments than when one of the twin rows was inoculated or when inoculant was not included. Fumigation with metam sodium did not affect pod yield, regardless of inoculation treatment.
Date: 2004-04-21
Degree: MS
Discipline: Crop Science

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