Assessing the Reliability of Hydrologic Characterizations of Four Wetland Plant Communities

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dc.contributor.advisor William Hoffmann, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Stephen Broome, Committee Co-Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Michael Vepraskas, Committee Co-Chair en_US Conk, Carlin Elizabeth en_US 2010-04-02T18:17:11Z 2010-04-02T18:17:11Z 2008-05-14 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-04232008-105353 en_US
dc.description.abstract Previous field work characterized the wetness requirements of four plant communities by modeling their hydrologic regimes in three reference wetlands and correlating the results. The objectives of this work were to: 1) determine whether the modeled predictions were accurate by growing four tree species that represented different plant communities under the modeled hydrologies in the greenhouse, and 2) determine how different tree species adapt to saturated soil conditions. Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana), pond pine (Pinus serotina), and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii) were grown in greenhouse experiments under three hydrologic regimes: i) ponded for 100 d, ii) ponded for 15 d, and iii) unsaturated. Loamy sand and sapric materials from a restored Carolina Bay were the substrate materials used to represent mineral and organic soils. Bald cypress (representing Non-riverine Swamp Forest) adapted well to 100 d of ponding by producing lateral roots near the surface, aerenchyma tissue in roots and stem, and increasing P uptake. In organic soils ponded for 100 d, bald cypress had significantly greater height, diameter, and total biomass than all other tree species. Sweet bay (representing Bay Forest) adapted well to 100 d of ponding by producing adventitious roots on the submerged portion of the stem. Pond pine (representing Pond Pine Woodland) was intolerant to 100 d of ponded conditions and 75% of the seedlings died in the ponded experiments. Swamp chestnut oak (representing Non-riverine Wet Hardwood Forest) was intolerant to ponding and all seedlings died in ponded treatments. A rhizotron study was conducted to further observe and quantify biological, morphological, and physiological changes in two wetland tree species with differing tolerances to saturated conditions. Bald cypress and swamp chestnut oak seedlings were grown under ponded and unponded conditions for 106 d in rhizotrons containing the same soils used in the container study. Within 2 wk of ponding, bald cypress (BC) seedlings in both organic and mineral soils began to produce lateral roots within the top 36 cm of soil. The swamp chestnut oak (SCO) seedlings subjected to ponding did not produce many new roots, and root death was observed within 4 wk of flooding. Scanning electron microscopy images of basal stems and roots of BC subjected to saturation showed substantial development of aerenchyma, which may have aided in the overall tolerance of BC to ponded conditions. This study showed BC seedlings developed numerous adaptations to saturated conditions, which allowed them to grow in wet organic soils of the Coastal Plain. Results from the container and rhizotron experiments showed that modeling of the long-term hydrology of natural communities was accurate in predicting the preferred wetness requirements of representative trees in three of the four plant communities evaluated. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dis sertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject hydrophytic vegetation en_US
dc.subject hydric soils en_US
dc.subject wetland restoration en_US
dc.title Assessing the Reliability of Hydrologic Characterizations of Four Wetland Plant Communities en_US MS en_US thesis en_US Soil Science en_US

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