Whey Permeate, Delactosed Permeate, and Delactosed Whey as Ingredients to Lower Sodium Content of Cream Based Soups

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Title: Whey Permeate, Delactosed Permeate, and Delactosed Whey as Ingredients to Lower Sodium Content of Cream Based Soups
Author: Dixon, Elizabeth Marie
Advisors: Dr. Sarah L. Ash, Committee Member
Dr. MaryAnne Drake, Committee Member
Dr. Jonathan C. Allen, Committee Chair
Abstract: The use of whey permeates as salt substitutes can help to decrease sodium and chloride intake, increase potassium, calcium and magnesium intakes and decrease hypertension risk. Five different whey permeates from 5 different manufacturers were analyzed with ICP for mineral content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn). Two permeates are powder and three are liquid. Lactose and protein content were also analyzed by Lactose/D-Glucose UV kit from Roche and BCA protein assay, respectively. Chloride and phosphate were measured spectrophotometrically. Basic tastes and aromas were quantified by a trained sensory panel. Based on the highest “salty taste†identified by the trained sensory panel, one liquid and one solid permeate were further investigated as sodium substitutes. The sodium content of the guideline solutions for comparing salty taste of the permeates were used to calculate the equivalent concentrations of salt and permeate for salty taste in aqueous solution. Two soup formulations were used to test the use of permeate as a salt substitute; one retorted, canned, condensed cream soup base, and one fresh cream soup base. Each formulation of soup was tested on a separate day by 75 consumer panelists who averaged between 20 and 30 years of age. Four samples were given each day 0%, 50%, 100% of the standard salt content in condensed soup, and permeate at a content calculated to be equal in salty taste to the standard salt content. The permeate soup was ranked in salty taste slightly lower than the 50% sample for the fresh soup. In the retorted soups, the permeate was ranked slightly higher than the 50% sample. However, the fresh and retorted soup formulations made from permeate actually contained 11% and 19% sodium as compared to the 100% salt recipe, respectively. The permeate soup was described as higher in salty taste than expected based on actual sodium content, but not as high as predicted from the salty taste of the permeate in aqueous solution. Potassium and magnesium levels were increased in the formulations with permeate. This research gives an optimistic view on the possibility of whey permeates and their capability of replacing sodium in cream soups and other processed foods.
Date: 2009-12-05
Degree: M
Discipline: Nutrition
URI: http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/2886

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