Operational Evaluation of In-Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption of B20 Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel-Fueled Onroad Heavy-duty Diesel Dump Trucks and Nonroad Construction Vehicles

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dc.contributor.advisor Dr. H. Christopher Frey, Committee Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Nagui M. Rouphail, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Donald R. van der Vaart, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Dr. E. Downey Brill, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.author Kim, Kangwook en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-04-02T18:27:24Z
dc.date.available 2010-04-02T18:27:24Z
dc.date.issued 2007-12-18 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-12172007-092347 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/3162
dc.description.abstract Diesel vehicles contribute substantially to statewide emissions of NOx, an ozone precursor, and to particulate matter. North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) is conducting a pilot study to demonstrate the use of B20 biodiesel fuel on approximately 1,000 vehicles in selected areas of the state; there are plans to extend the use of B20 fuel to a much larger number of vehicles in all 100 counties in North Carolina. Real-world in-use onroad and nonroad emissions of selected heavy-duty diesel vehicles, including those fueled with B20 biodiesel and petroleum diesel, were measured during normal duty cycles using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Each vehicle was tested for one day on B20 biodiesel and for one day on petroleum diesel, for a total of 68 days of field measurements. The vehicles were operated by drivers assigned by NCDOT. Each test was conducted over the course of an entire workshift, and there were approximately 2 to 10 duty cycles per shift. Each duty cycle is comprised of a uniquely weighted combination of operating modes based on vehicle speed, acceleration, and typical modes of activities. Average emission rates on a mass per time basis varied substantially among the operating modes. Average fuel use and emissions rates increased 26 to 35 percent when vehicles were loaded versus unloaded. The use of B20 instead of petroleum diesel lead to a slight decrease (approximately 2 to 10 percent depending on the vehicle) in NO emission rate and significant decreases (approximately 10 to 30 percent depending on the vehicle) for opacity, HC, and CO, respectively. These trends are similar to nonroad vehicles. Factors that were responsible for the observed variability in fuel use and emissions include: operating mode, vehicle size, engine tier and size, vehicle weight, and fuel. In particular, emission rates were also found to decrease significantly when comparing newer, higher tier vehicles to older ones. Recommendations were made regarding operating strategies to reduce emissions, choice of fuel, and the need for future work to collect real-world duty cycle data for other vehicle types. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dis sertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject Onroad en_US
dc.subject Nonroad en_US
dc.subject Heavy-duty en_US
dc.subject Diesel en_US
dc.subject Biodiesel en_US
dc.subject B20 en_US
dc.subject Real-World en_US
dc.subject Emissions en_US
dc.subject Construction en_US
dc.title Operational Evaluation of In-Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption of B20 Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel-Fueled Onroad Heavy-duty Diesel Dump Trucks and Nonroad Construction Vehicles en_US
dc.degree.name PhD en_US
dc.degree.level dissertation en_US
dc.degree.discipline Civil Engineering en_US

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