Effect of Various Ingredients on a Model Process Cheese System

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dc.contributor.advisor Mitzi Montoya-Weiss, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Christopher Daubert, Ph.D., Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor E. Allen Foegeding, Ph.D., Committee Chair en_US
dc.contributor.author Dees, Amanda Lee en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-04-02T17:54:47Z
dc.date.available 2010-04-02T17:54:47Z
dc.date.issued 2003-07-30 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-07292002-151841 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/338
dc.description.abstract The process cheese industry desires to increase formula flexibility by incorporating various alternative ingredients into process cheese. For example, incorporation of whey protein could reduce the amount of casein used in process cheese formulations. The purpose of this study was to understand effects of various ingredients and how they affect texture and meltability of cheese. The ingredients studied were native whey protein, mono- and disodium phosphate, lactose, and polymerized whey protein concentrate (pWPC). Cheese analogs contained mono- and disodium phosphate, lactose, 1 of 4 different whey protein ingredients or pWPC. Cheese analogs were made by heating and mixing for 21 min in a Stephan mixer with endpoint temperatures of 80C or 85C. The pWPC was prepared by heating WPC at 90C, pH 8.0, for 30 min. Properties of pWPC were determined by small strain rheology. Cheese analogs were characterized by yield stress and meltability measurements. Native whey protein showed no clear trend with regard to yield stress or meltability. Also, the addition of lactose at 0% to 4.4% and mono- and disodium phosphate between 2.0% to 2.8% had no effect on yield stress while meltability results showed no consistent trend of cheeses cooked to 80C. Differences were observed when cheese was heated to an endpoint of 85C. The higher temperature increased yield stress approximately 80% and reduced meltability from a Schreiber number of about 9 to 5. Of four protein concentrations tested for polymerization, 5.0% and 4.5% protein had low viscosity, while 5.5% protein produced a texture similar to jelly. Generally, 6% protein formed a gel. A 13% substitution of casein with native WPC in a cheese analog resulted in a slight decrease in yield stress and no change in meltability. Whereas, a 13% substitution of casein with pWPC in a cheese analog increased the yield stress approximately 18% and decreased meltability from a Schreiber number of about 10 to 8. Different levels of lactose did not affect the texture or meltability of the process cheese analog, however, the level of mono- and disodium phosphate and whey protein did result in differences in yield stress and meltability. These differences were observed at a much greater extent when the cheese analog was cooked to a final temperature of 85C. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject polymerized whey protein concentrate en_US
dc.subject process cheese en_US
dc.subject whey protein concentrate en_US
dc.subject whey protein isolate en_US
dc.title Effect of Various Ingredients on a Model Process Cheese System en_US
dc.degree.name MS en_US
dc.degree.level thesis en_US
dc.degree.discipline Food Science en_US

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