Early Elementary School Predictors of a Learning Disability in Reading

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dc.contributor.advisor Cathy L. Crossland, Committee Co-Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Barbara J. Fox, Committee Co-Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Edward J. Sabornie, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Lynne Baker-Ward, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.author Weiss, Stacy Lynn en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-04-02T18:32:49Z
dc.date.available 2010-04-02T18:32:49Z
dc.date.issued 2008-11-25 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-10162008-220406 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/3588
dc.description.abstract ABSTRACT WEISS, STACY LYNN. Early Elementary School Predictors of a Learning Disability in Reading. (Under the direction of Cathy Crossland and Barbara Fox). The purpose of this study was to determine if four kindergarten factors were predictive of the identification of a learning disability with Individual Education Program goals in reading (LDR) at third and fifth grades. Much of the research related to predicting reading difficulty has focused on early elementary school outcomes and included predictors from only one domain, such as reading-related skills (Scarborough, 1998). This study extends the research by combining four factors related to LDR identification into a single study: student age on the first day of kindergarten, social-academic behaviors in the classroom, reading skills, and reading instruction in the sound-symbol relationship. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) were analyzed using logit analyses. Odds, confidence intervals, and probabilities of LDR identification are presented to aid in the interpretation of the results. Student age on the first day of kindergarten, social-academic behaviors, and reading scores were significant predictors of LDR. Being significantly older in kindergarten (two standard deviations above the mean), having significantly lower teacher ratings of social-academic behaviors (two standard deviations below the mean) and scoring significantly lower on a standardized reading measure (two standard deviations below the mean) resulted in a probability of LDR identification at third grade of .76 and a probability of LDR identification at fifth grade of .64, when including all students. When only considering the students who were in kindergarten for the first time at the beginning of the study, age at time of kindergarten entry, social-academic behaviors, and reading scores continued to be significant predictors of LDR at third grade. At fifth grade, reading and social-academic behaviors independently were significant predictors of LDR. The frequency of kindergarten instruction in the sound-symbol relationship was not a significant predictor of LDR at third or fifth grades. Kindergarten teachers reported similar and frequent instruction related to matching letters to sounds, working on phonics, and identifying letters of the alphabet. Additional research is needed to determine if other instruction-related factors such as intensity or method of instruction are significant predictors of LDR. Study limitations and areas for additional research based on these findings are discussed. Scarborough, H. S. (1998). Early identification of children at risk for reading disabilities: Phonological awareness and some other promising predictors. In B. K. Shapiro, P. J. Accardo, & A. J. Capute (Eds.) Specific reading disability: A view of the spectrum (pp.75-119). Timinium, MD: York Press, INC. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dis sertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject reading en_US
dc.subject learning disability en_US
dc.subject ECLS-K en_US
dc.subject logistic regression en_US
dc.title Early Elementary School Predictors of a Learning Disability in Reading en_US
dc.degree.name PhD en_US
dc.degree.level dissertation en_US
dc.degree.discipline Curriculum and Instruction en_US

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