Validating Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development (OTAID): A South African Women Sample

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dc.contributor.advisor Hebert A. Exum, Ph.D., Committee Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Craig Brookins, Ph.D., Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Stanley Baker, Ph.D., Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Rhonda Sutton, Ph.D., Committee Member en_US Sawyer, Kyla Marie en_US 2010-04-02T18:35:31Z 2010-04-02T18:35:31Z 2004-09-28 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-06112004-171435 en_US
dc.description.abstract Many counselors use identity development models and theories to understand a client's process of self-definition in the context of her or his group or the larger society. This process of self-definition affects a client's emotions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors. Due to the oppressive system of apartheid and the restrictions on certain kinds of research, identity development for South African women has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development (OTAID) accurately reflects the identity attitudes in a sample of 148 Black, Coloured, and Indian South African women attending a university in the Western Cape. This study used a modified version of the Self Identity Inventory (SII), an instrument designed to operationalize the phases of the OTAID (Sevig, 2000). Three strategies were used to test construct validity of the SII (a) an exploratory factor analyses, (b) an inter-scale correlation of the SII subscales, and (c) a correlational analysis of the SII with the Belief System Analysis Scale (BSAS). A 2-factor exploratory factor analysis of the SII revealed items that loaded according to their suboptimal and optimal assignment based on the OTAID. However, a 6-factor exploratory analysis only supported three of the six phases: Immersion, Internalization, and Transformation. In addition another phase of identity emerged: Limited Awareness. Additionally, findings for the inter-scale correlations were partially in accordance with the OTAID as was the correlations between the SII subscales and the BSAS where only the Integration subscale was significantly correlated. The analysis of the Identity Expression Index (IEI) indicated that the most important identity constructs for women were religion/spirituality, family role, career/occupation/education, gender and race. Finally, focus group discussions with a smaller sample of these women also provided partial support for the OTAID and revealed two potential additional identity areas: assimilation and self-deprecation. Although the OTAID was found not to be entirely applicable to Black South African women, the findings from this study does provide more information about the identity development of Black South African women than previously available. Implications for counselors and recommendations for future research are discussed. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject Belief System Analysis Scale en_US
dc.subject Self Identity Inventory en_US
dc.subject South African women en_US
dc.subject Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development en_US
dc.subject identity development en_US
dc.title Validating Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development (OTAID): A South African Women Sample en_US PhD en_US dissertation en_US Counselor Education en_US

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