Nucleation and Growth of Defects in Nitrogen doped Silicon

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dc.contributor.advisor Carl Koch, Committee Co-Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor George A. Rozgonyi, Committee Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor THOMAS BRENT GUNNOE, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor JAGANNADHAM KASICHAINULA, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Jerry L. Whitten, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.author Karoui, Abdennaceur en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-04-02T18:42:01Z
dc.date.available 2010-04-02T18:42:01Z
dc.date.issued 2004-12-31 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-12292004-143631 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/4002
dc.description.abstract Ultra high purity silicon is advantageously modified by as low as 5x10¹⁴ cm⁻³ nitrogen. Such a doping level was proved to drastically impact grown-in and process-induced defects, enhances the denuded zone intended for making devices, improves impurity gettering, and increases the gate oxide integrity in metal oxide silicon devices. Interestingly, with such a low nitrogen level wafer toughness is significantly increased. However, nitrogen doping alters standard wafer heat treatment processes through the modification of the early stages of point defect clustering dynamics. In this thesis, the basic interactions of light element impurities, particularly N and O, with point defects and crystal defects in silicon are scrutinized in order to understand the mechanisms of extended defect nucleation and growth in N doped silicon. Experimental data are used with molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics calculations for modeling defect formation. Various thermal annealing have been utilized to produce diverse conditions for defect interactions. Defect type, size distribution, nanoscale and atomic structure, and composition have been determined with emphasis on the depth dependence. Nanoscale analysis of defects probed at different depths allowed to build models of point defect dynamics from the extended defect formation history. Defect nucleation during crystal growth was qualitatively discussed and defect precursors were mapped on the crystal hot zones showing point defect clustering stages during solidification. This was based on results from the atomistic modeling of atomic structure of chemical complex ground states, the thermodynamic parameters close to the melting point, and the adsorption/desorption of point defects by stable chemical complexes. It was found that N₂ is a stable mobile species, VN₂ is an active metastable complex, and V₂N₂ is an immobile stable nucleus for oxygen precipitation but not for vacancy clustering. The formation energy of VN₂ was found positive by DFT calculations, which negates the spontaneous formation of isolated complex. However, the formation energy is reduced to about k[subscript B]T/2 near the melting point by coupling to one oxygen atom, which activates the formation of VN₂, while weakly bound to the oxygen. The calculated thermal stability of a wide range of prominent chemical complexes was cross-checked with the signature of experimentally proven viable ones. Furthermore, IR absorption line intensities in annealed wafers were obtained as a function of depth by high spatial resolution synchrotron FTIR, which allowed having N-V-O depth profiles. These appeared in good agreement with that of the oxynitride precipitate profiles by OPP and SIMS. Such an agreement represents a strong support for both chemical complex spectroscopic identification and calculated thermodynamic parameters. At the macroscopic level, nitrogen appeared to slowly athermally segregate under compressive stresses to dislocations and wafer surface; the segregation is accelerated at high temperature. In addition, nitrogen was found to couple with oxygen to form oxynitride zones and it segregates to precipitate interfaces making N-rich shells. Finally, silicon mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation of a variety of substrates appeared to well correlate with the dislocation pinning by light elements such as N, O, and C. The locking mechanism was correlated to dislocation interaction with impurity atmospheres simulated using elasticity theory, the size effect model, and Tersoff inter-atomic potential. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject Vacancy en_US
dc.subject Point Defects en_US
dc.subject Chemical Complex en_US
dc.subject N2 en_US
dc.subject VN2 en_US
dc.subject V2N2 en_US
dc.subject V-N-O en_US
dc.subject Cluster en_US
dc.subject Precipitate en_US
dc.subject Void en_US
dc.subject Thermal Stability en_US
dc.subject Etching en_US
dc.subject Energy of Formation en_US
dc.subject Configuration Entropy en_US
dc.subject Vibrational Entropy en_US
dc.subject Z-Contrast en_US
dc.subject HRTEM en_US
dc.subject EELS en_US
dc.subject First Principles Calculations en_US
dc.subject Synchrotron FTIR en_US
dc.subject Molecular Dynamics en_US
dc.subject Oxygen en_US
dc.subject Quantum chemistry en_US
dc.subject Interstitial en_US
dc.subject Nitrogen en_US
dc.subject FZ en_US
dc.subject CZ en_US
dc.subject Semi-empirical en_US
dc.subject DFT en_US
dc.subject Silicon en_US
dc.subject OPP en_US
dc.subject LDA en_US
dc.subject Nanoindentation en_US
dc.subject Hardness en_US
dc.title Nucleation and Growth of Defects in Nitrogen doped Silicon en_US
dc.degree.name PhD en_US
dc.degree.level dissertation en_US
dc.degree.discipline Materials Science and Engineering en_US


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