Effects of Muscadine Grape Products on Healthy and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: Blood Chemistry, Antioxidant Capacity and Membrane Lipids

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Title: Effects of Muscadine Grape Products on Healthy and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: Blood Chemistry, Antioxidant Capacity and Membrane Lipids
Author: Banini, Akpene Esi
Advisors: Brenda Alston-Mills, Committee Member
Hengameh G. Allen, Committee Member
George L. Catignani, Committee Member
Jonathan C. Alllen, Committee Co-Chair
Leon C. Boyd, Committee Co-Chair
Abstract: Red wines and grape juices contain phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties that are protective against oxidative stress conditions such as hypertension, insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). This study evaluated the effects of muscadine grapes processed as juice (MJ), wine (MW) and dealcoholized wine (DzW) on blood constituents, antioxidant capacity, and erythrocyte membrane lipids of free living T2D and control, non-diabetic subjects. Two Control groups, MJ- group and control without supplementation (CS); and three T2D groups, MJ, DzW and MW each consumed 150 ml of the grape product daily (except for CS) with meal for 28 days. Dietary information, anthropometry and blood sample analysis for erythrocyte membrane lipids, antioxidant capacity, glycated hemoglobin, insulin and electrolytes were carried out. Liver, renal and cardiac function tests were also evaluated. All tests performed at baseline were repeated 28 days post-treatment. Decreased levels of blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin post supplementation suggest better glycemic control, especially in the T2D- wine group. Low dietary chromium and biotin in all subjects indicate insulin inefficiency in stimulating glucose uptake. Reduced serum sodium and chloride levels among T2D- wine group after supplementation suggest reduced risk for hypertension. High folate and vitamin B12 levels in T2D- DzW indicate a favorable environment for homocysteine clearance and increased insulin sensitivity. Lowered triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in T2D taking DzW and MW suggest improved lipid metabolism. Decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in T2D- wine group indicate better insulin sensitivity and reduced risk of impaired liver function. In conclusion, T2D- wine and DzW groups exhibited improved serum lipids, ALT, AST and glutathione compared to T2D- juice group. Also, improved serum electrolyte and cardiac function in T2D- wine group, and greater responses in insulin, folate and vitamin B12 in T2D- DzW group were observed. Moderate amounts of wine and dealcoholized wine intake may therefore improve diabetic metabolic functions.
Date: 2004-08-30
Degree: PhD
Discipline: Nutrition
URI: http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/4786

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