Beta-lactoglobulin Complexed Vitamins A and D in Skim Milk: Shelf Life and Bioavailability

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisor Jonathan C. Allen, Committee Chair en_US
dc.contributor.advisor George L. Catignani, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Leon C. Boyd, Committee Member en_US
dc.contributor.advisor, Committee Member en_US Liu, Ying en_US 2010-04-02T19:01:59Z 2010-04-02T19:01:59Z 2003-11-18 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-11172003-162007 en_US
dc.description.abstract As reduced fat dairy products became popular in the U.S., the reduction of vitamins A and D in these products rendered a nutritional concern. Beta-lactoglobulin has been reported capable of binding fat-soluble vitamins. In order to justify the potential of beta-lactoglobulin as a stable and protective carrier for the vitamins, stability and bioavailability of beta-lactoglobulin complexed vitamins A and D in skim milk were investigated in this study. The first objective of this research was to observe the stability of vitamin A palmitate and vitamin D₃ in fortified skim milk during storage. The fortifiers included regular oil-based vitamins, Roche dry vitamins, and spray-dried and freeze-dried protein-based vitamins. Milk was stored in different packaging materials including glass test tubes, plastic bottles, and paperboard cartons. The effect of High Temperature Short Time (HTST) and Ultra High Temperature (UHT) pasteurizations on shelf life was also studied. Vitamin A palmitate and vitamin D₃ were extracted by organic solvents and assayed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitamin D₃ was relatively stable in all milks during the 4 weeks of shelf life. Vitamin A concentrations remained stable in most HTST milk except for those fortified with Roche dry vitamin A. A significant decrease in retinyl palmitate was detected in UHT protein-based vitamin-fortified skim milk. The second objective was to test the ability of different forms of fortified skim milk to boost vitamin levels in vitamin-depleted rats. Serum, liver and bone tissues were assayed for both vitamins and calcium. Data indicated that oil-based vitamin A-fortified skim milk was as efficient as positive AIN-93G pelleted rodent diet in raising the vitamin A levels in the tissues and protein-based vitamin D₃ fortified skim milk most effectively boosted the serum 25-OH D level. In conclusion, beta-lactoglobulin complexed vitamin A palmitate is not an appropriate fortifier for UHT skim milk while beta-lactoglobulin complexed vitamin D₃ is a more stable and effective fortifier than the regular oil-based fortifier. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject bioavailability en_US
dc.subject shelf life en_US
dc.subject skim milk en_US
dc.subject beta-lactoglobulin en_US
dc.subject vitamins A and D en_US
dc.title Beta-lactoglobulin Complexed Vitamins A and D in Skim Milk: Shelf Life and Bioavailability en_US PhD en_US dissertation en_US Nutrition en_US

Files in this item

Files Size Format View
etd.pdf 1.170Mb PDF View/Open

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record