Soybean Root Growth in Acid Subsoils in Relation to Magnesium Additions and Soil Solution Chemistry

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Title: Soybean Root Growth in Acid Subsoils in Relation to Magnesium Additions and Soil Solution Chemistry
Author: Hashimoto, Yohei
Advisors: Daniel W. Israel, Committee Member
Paul V. Nelson, Committee Member
T. Jot Smyth, Committee Chair
Dean Hesterberg, Committee Member
Abstract: Aluminum tolerance of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by citrate secretion from roots, leading to external complexation of toxic Al species in solution, is enhanced by addition of μM Mg²⁺ to hydroponic solutions. The objectives of this dissertation were to assess ameliorative effects of μM Mg additions on soybean root growth in acidic subsoils and to relate the soil solution ionic compositions to soybean root growth. Roots of soybean cultivar Plant Introduction 416937 extending from a limed surface soil compartment grew for 28 days into a subsurface compartment containing acid subsoils [Cecil (oxidic and kaolinitic), Creedmoor (montmorillonitic) and Norfolk (kaolinitic)]. The three Mg treatments consisted of the native equilibrium soil solution concentrations in each soil (50 or 100 μM) and MgCl₂ additions to achieve 150 and 300 μM Mg (Mg150, Mg300, respectively) in the soil solutions. Root elongations into Mg-treated subsoils were compared with a CaCO₃ treatment limed to achieve a soil pH value of 5.5. Subsoil root length for the treatments without added Mg or lime decreased in the order of the Cecil followed by Norfolk and Creedmoor subsoils, and corresponded to the increasing order of percent Al saturation (27, 61 and 83%, respectively). Subsoil root growth and dry matter responses to the Mg treatments were less than the lime treatments, and there were no differences for the Mg150 and Mg300 treatments as compared to the treatments without added Mg or lime. Citrate adsorption experiments found that over 66% citrate added in the subsoils were adsorbed and biodegraded, suggesting that root secreted citrate in the soil might readily be unavailable to complex Al for ameliorating its rhizotoxicity. Root length relative to the limed treatments for all subsoils (RRL) was poorly related to the activity of soil solution Al species (Al³⁺ and Al-hydroxyl species) and Mg²⁺. However, the RRL values were more closely related to the parameters associated with soil solution Ca activity including Ca²⁺, Al³⁺⁄Ca²⁺, and Al³⁺;⁄(Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺), suggesting that Ca could be a primary factor ameliorating Al and H⁺ rhizotoxicity in these subsoils. Increased tolerance to Al rhizotoxicity of soybean by μM Mg additions to hydroponic solutions, inducing citrate secretion from roots to externally complex toxic Al species, may be less important in the acid subsoil with a poor native Ca available to root growth.
Date: 2006-05-30
Degree: PhD
Discipline: Soil Science
URI: http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/5146


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