Phosphorus Dynamics from Broiler Breeder Diets in Manure, Soil, and Corn.

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Title: Phosphorus Dynamics from Broiler Breeder Diets in Manure, Soil, and Corn.
Author: Casteel, Shaun Nathan
Advisors: Daniel W. Israel, Committee Co-Chair
John T. Brake, Committee Co-Chair
Carl Crozier, Committee Member
Rory Maguire, Committee Member
Edgar Oviedo, Committee Member
Abstract: Studies of broiler breeder diet modifications to reduce phosphorus (P) excretion have evaluated bird performance, but no studies have quantified the effects of P in the manure and the impacts to soil and plant availability once soil-applied. Four diets were formulated by factoring two levels, 0.40 and 0.22% available P (NRC, Low, respectively), with or without phytase during the breeder laying phase (wk 22 to 64). Breeders fed phytase produced manures with 15% lower total P concentration, but did not change manure water-soluble P (WSP). However, P in the breeder manures was > 92% orthophosphate. The incubation of the four unique manures in samples of Portsmouth (Typic Umbraquult) and Wagram (Arenic Kandiudult) series generally did not differ in concentrations of Mehlich-3 P, soil WSP, total inorganic P, and total P. Phosphorus-based applications of breeder manures (NRC, Low) and triple superphosphate (TSP, Ca[H2PO4]2 H2O) were applied to a P-deficient, Portsmouth soil in the greenhouse to determine the response of corn (Zea mays). Corn growth was equal among P sources in the initial study, but it tended to be greater in the soils amended with breeder manures in the residual study due to the P applied and the apparent liming effect of the soil. The NRC and Low breeder manures were applied at 39 kg P ha-1 in 2007 at Salisbury (Typic Rhodudult), Lewiston (Aquic Paleudult), and Plymouth (Typic Umbraquult), which ranged in soil P levels. Plymouth included TSP and an untreated control. Corn growth was equal among soils amended with the breeder manures NRC and Low in all site-years and grain P removal was equal five out of six site-years. Grain production, grain P removal, and applied P recovery were equal among P sources in 2007, but the breeder manure treatments were greater than TSP in 2008. Breeder manures should be considered equivalent to TSP in P impacts to the soil and plant availability.
Date: 2009-04-27
Degree: PhD
Discipline: Soil Science

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