Children's Friendship with Place: An Exploration of Environmental Child Friendliness of Children's Environments in Cities.

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dc.contributor.advisor Robin, C. Moore, Committee Chair en_US
dc.contributor.author Chatterjee, Sudeshna en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-04-02T19:09:31Z
dc.date.available 2010-04-02T19:09:31Z
dc.date.issued 2006-08-17 en_US
dc.identifier.other etd-05172006-230131 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/5206
dc.description.abstract The Child Friendly Cities is a concept for making cities friendly for all children especially in UN member countries that have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (i.e., all except the United States) through municipal action. This idea is particularly important for improving the quality of life of poor urban children who are most affected by sweeping changes brought about by globalization and rapid urbanization in the developing nations of the global South. However, there is no theoretical understanding of a construct such as environmental child friendliness that could guide planning and design of child friendly environments in cities. Resulting from an integrative review of a large body of interdisciplinary literature, a new six-dimensional construct based on children's friendship needs, called children's place friendship, is proposed as underpinning environmental child friendliness from an environment-behavior perspective. The study disaggregates the idea of the child friendly city into numerous interlocking child friendly places that children themselves consider friendly based on their own experiences. These child friendly places support the six dimensions of place friendship in different ways: care and respect for places, meaningful exchange with places, learning and competence through place experience, creating and controlling territories, having secret places, and freedom of expression in places. An in-depth analytic ethnography was conducted in a low-income, high-density, mixed-use neighborhood in New Delhi, India, with children in their middle-childhood to validate and elaborate this conceptual framework. The chosen context provided a homogeneous Muslim base, large numbers of children and youth, ready access to fieldwork and several diverse socio-physical settings. The study used four kinds of data: interviews, observations, journals kept by children, and archival documents and records. The places most recommended by children under each of the six dimensions were studied to find out the meanings of these places for children by analyzing the physical environmental attributes, nature of production of the places in the city, and actualization of socio-physical affordances by children. The findings of this study suggest that most child friendly places were easily accessible in the local area of the children's neighborhood. The large range of places (199 places recommended under six dimensions by thirty-one children) is categorized in twelve place typologies. Most child friendly places (34%) belong to the typology of local formal open spaces such as designed parks and playgrounds. Children respected, cared for and loved these places for being well-maintained and aesthetically pleasing environments. Children also chose local formal open spaces for action affordances. The study reveals the socially constructed nature of care and respect for places in the context of the low-income Muslim neighborhood. Local informal open spaces allowed children to claim and own space more easily than formal open spaces, to freely express themselves, as well as to seek out secret places. However, in relation to learning, though children themselves recommended places of symbolic value such as monuments, the study found that children who participated in the practices of everyday, learned as apprentices from the diverse settings in their local area. Analysis of the patterns of place friendship in the new place typology suggests that instead of considering six dimensions of place friendship, four dimensions are sufficient to account for the range of children's friendly interactions with places. A generic typology of child friendly places is proposed using the reduced set of four dimensions. This provides a tangible framework for child friendly city strategies both for the creation of child friendly places, as well as for evaluation of environments specifically created for children. en_US
dc.rights I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report. en_US
dc.subject child friendly city en_US
dc.subject place meaning en_US
dc.subject environment behavior en_US
dc.subject developing country en_US
dc.subject Indian city en_US
dc.subject secret places in childhood en_US
dc.title Children's Friendship with Place: An Exploration of Environmental Child Friendliness of Children's Environments in Cities. en_US
dc.degree.name PhD en_US
dc.degree.level dissertation en_US
dc.degree.discipline Design en_US


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