Malcolm X Liberation University: An Experiment in Independent Black Education

dc.contributor.advisorDr. Sanford Kessler, Committee Memberen_US
dc.contributor.advisorDr. Linda McMurry-Edwards, Committee Chairen_US
dc.contributor.advisorDr. Holly Brewer, Committee Memberen_US
dc.contributor.authorBelvin, Brent Hen_US
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of the research undertaken has been to examine the origins, mission, and ultimate demise of Malcolm X Liberation University (MXLU) from 1969-1973 in Durham and Greensboro, North Carolina. MXLU is placed within the larger context of the Black Power movement of the late 1960s and one of its offshoots: the creation of the Black University. The origins of MXLU lay in the takeover of the administration building at Duke University in an effort to force Duke to address grievances held by African-American students. The perceived failure of Duke to respond to the student concerns prompted the development of MXLU, with controversial local activist Howard Fuller emerging as the guiding force of the new school. In its brief history, MXLU operated under a cloud of mystery and suspicion, largely due to a conscious decision to keep the separatist school's operations a secret from the white media. Without two grants from the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina totaling $45,000, MXLU may never have opened its doors. Those grants, however, rocked the North Carolina diocese to its core, and made attaining future funds a difficult task for MXLU. Surviving documents from individuals involved with MXLU relate a story of a school with an innovative approach to education for African-Americans, but constantly struggling merely to stay afloat. Financial problems do not tell the complete story, however. A failure to cultivate relations with North Carolina's historically black college and universities (HBCUs), a lack of support from civil rights organizations, Howard Fuller's and MXLU's recurring problems with the white press, and internal factions within MXLU itself all contributed to the ultimate demise of MXLU as a viable institution of higher learning. MXLU's legacy can be clearly seen in the explosion of African-American studies programs in the nation's colleges and universities, as well as in the renewed debate over the value of integration in America's flawed public education system.en_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to NC State University or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectHoward Fulleren_US
dc.subjectBlack Universityen_US
dc.subjectMalcolm X Liberation Universityen_US
dc.titleMalcolm X Liberation University: An Experiment in Independent Black Educationen_US


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